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SECTION 14

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14. Summary of Major CP/M 3.0 Commands


TABLE OF CONTENTS

14.1 THE TWO TYPES OF CP/M 3.0 COMMANDS

14.2 BUILT-IN COMMANDS

Table 14-1. Built-in Commands.

14.3 TRANSIENT UTILITY COMMANDS

Table 14-2. Transient Utility Commands.

14.4 REDIRECTING INPUT AND OUTPUT

Figure 14-1. PUT Command Example.

14.5 ASSIGNING LOGICAL DEVICES

Table 14-3. CP/M 3.0 Logical Devices.

14.6 FINDING PROGRAM FILES

14.7 EXECUTING MULTIPLE COMMANDS

14.8 TERMINATING PROGRAMS

14.9 GETTING HELP

As noted in section 11, a CP/M 3.0 command line consists of a command keyword, an optional command tail and a {return} keystroke. This section describes the two kinds of commands the command keyword can identify, and summarizes individual commands and their functions. The section also gives examples of the use of some of the more commonly used commands. In addition, the section explains the concept of logical and physical devices under CP/M 3.0. This section then tells how CP/M 3.0 searches for a program file on a disk, tells how to execute multiple commands, and how to reset the disk system. Finally, the section explains how to use the HELP command to get information on various CP/M topics including command formats and usage, right at the keyboard.

14.1 THE TWO TYPES OF CP/M 3.0 COMMANDS

There are two types of commands on CP/M 3.0:

  • Built-in commands - which identify programs in memory
  • Transient utility commands - which identify program files on a disk

CP/M 3.0 has six built-in commands and over 20 transient utility commands. You can add utilities to your system by purchasing various CP/M 3.0-compatible application programs. If you are an experienced programmer, you can also write your own utilities that operate with CP/M 3.0.

14.2 BUILT-IN COMMANDS

Built-in commands are part of CP/M 3.0 that are always available for your use, regardless of which disk your have in which drive. Built-in commands are entered in the computer's memory when CP/M 3.0 is loaded, and are, therefore, executed more quickly than the transient utilities. Table 14-1 lists the Commodore 128 CP/M 3.0 built-in commands.

Some built-in commands have options that require support from a related transient utility. The related transient utility command has the same name as the built-in command and has a filetype of COM.

Table 14-1. Built-in Commands.

Command

Function

DIR

Displays filenames of all files in the directory except those marked with the SYS attribute.

DIRSYS

Displays filenames of file marked with the SYS (system) attribute in the directory.

ERASE

Erases a filename from the disk directory and releases the storage space occupied by the file.

RENAME

Renames a disk file.

TYPE

Displays contents of an ASCII (TEXT) file at your screen.

USER

Changes to a different user number.

14.3 TRANSIENT UTILITY COMMANDS

The CP/M 3.0 transient utilities are listed in Table 14-2. When you enter a command keyword that identifies a transient utility, CP/M 3.0 loads the program file from the disk and passes to that file any filenames, data, or parameters you entered in the command tail.

DIR, RENAME and TYPE are built-in commands which have optional transient extensions.

Table 14-2. Transient Utility Commands.

DATE

Sets or displays the date and time.

DEVICE

Assigns logical CP/M devices to one or more physical devices, changes device driver protocol and baud rates, or sets console screen size.

DIR

Displays directory with files and their characteristics.

DUMP

Displays a file in ASCII and hexadecimal format.

ED

Creates and alters ASCII files.

ERASE

Used for wildcard erase.

FORMAT

Formats a CP/M disk. Clears data from previous used disks.

GENCOM

Creates a special COM file with attached RSX file.

GET

Temporarily gets console input from a disk file rather than the keyboard.

HELP

Displays information on how to use CP/M 3.0 commands.

INITDIR

Initializes a disk directory to allow time and date stamping.

KEYFIG

Allows alteration of the definition of the keyboard keys.

PATCH

Displays or installs patches to the CP/M system.

PIP

Copies files and combines files.

PUT

Temporarily directs printer or console output to a disk file.

RENAME

Changes the name of a file, or a group of files using wildcard characters.

SAVE

Copies the contents of memory to a file.

SET

Sets file options including disk labels, file attributes, type of time and date stamping and password protection.

SETDEF

Sets system options including the drive search chain.

SHOW

Displays disk and drive statistics.

SUBMIT

Automatically executes multiple commands.

TYPE

Displays contents of text file (or group of files, if wildcard characters are used) on screen (and printer if desired).

14.4 REDIRECTING INPUT AND OUTPUT

CP/M 3.0's PUT Command allows you to redirect console or printer output to a disk file. You can use a GET command to make CP/M 3.0 or a utility program take console input from a disk file. The following examples illustrate some of the capabilities offered by GET and PUT.

You can use a PUT command to direct console output to a disk file as well as to the console. With PUT, you can create a disk file containing a directory of all files on that disk, as shown in Figure 14-1.

Figure 14-1. PUT Command Example.

A>PUT CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE DIR.PRN
PUTTING CONSOLE OUTPUT TO FILE: DIR.PRN

A>DIR
A: FILENAME TEX : FRONT    TEX : FRONT    BAK : ONE      BAK : THREE    TEX
A: FOUR     TEX : ONE      TEX : LINEDIT  TEX : EXAMP1   TXT : TWO      BAK
A: TWO      TEX : THREE    BAK : EXAMP2   TXT

A>TYPE DIR.PRN
A: FILENAME TEX : FRONT    TEX : FRONT    BAK : ONE      BAK : THREE    TEX
A: FOUR     TEX : ONE      TEX : LINEDIT  TEX : EXAMP1   TXT : TWO      BAK
A: TWO      TEX : THREE    BAK : EXAMP2   TXT

A GET command can direct CP/M 3.0 or a program to read console input from a disk file instead of from the keyboard. If the file is to be read by CP/M 3.0, it must contain standard CP/M 3.0 command lines. If the file is to be read by a utility program, it must contain input appropriate for that program. A file can contain both CP/M 3.0 command lines and program input if it also includes a command to start a program.

14.5 ASSIGNING LOGICAL DEVICES

The minimal Commodore 128 CP/M 3.0 hardware includes a console consisting of a keyboard and screen display and a 1571 disk drive. You may want to add another device to your system, such as a printer or a modem. To help keep track of these physical different input and output devices, Table 14-3 gives the names of CP/M 3.0 logical devices. It also shows the physical devices assigned to these logical devices in the Commodore 128 CP/M 3.0 system.

Table 14-3. CP/M 3.0 Logical Devices.

Logical Device Name

Device Type
Physical Device Assigment

CONIN:

Console input
Keyboard

CONOUT:

Console output
80-column Screen

AUXIN:

Auxiliary input
Null

AUXOUT:

Auxiliary output
Null

LST:

List output
PTR1 or PTR2

You can change these assigments with a DEVICE command. For example, you can, assign AUXIN and AUXOUT to a modem so that your computer can use telephone lines to communicate with other computer users, with information service like Compunet and View Data Systems.

14.6 FINDING PROGRAM FILES

If a command keyword identifies a utility, CP/M 3.0 looks for that program file on the default or specified drive. It looks under the current user number, and then under user number 0 for the same file marked with the SYS attribute. At any point in the search process, CP/M 3.0 stops the search if it finds the program file. CP/M 3.0 then loads the program into memory and executes it. When the program terminates, CP/M 3.0 displays the system prompt and waits for your next command. However, if CP/M 3.0 does not find the command file, it repeats the command line followed by a question mark, and waits for your next command.

14.7 EXECUTING MULTIPLE COMMANDS

In the examples so far, CP/M 3.0 executed only one command at a time. CP/M 3.0 can also execute a sequence of commands. You can enter a sequence of commands at the system prompt, or you can put a frequently needed sequence of commands in a disk file, using the filetype of SUB. Once you have stored the sequence in a disk file, you can execute the sequence whenever you need to with a SUBMIT command.

14.8 TERMINATING PROGRAMS

You can use the two keystroke command CTRL-C to terminate program execution or reset the disk system. To enter a CTRL-C command, hold down the {ctrl} key and press {c}.

Most application programs that run under CP/M and most CP/M transient utilities can be terminated by a CTRL-C. However, if you try to terminate a program while it is sending a display to the screen, you may need to press a CTRL-S to halt the display before you enter CTRL-C.

14.9 GETTING HELP

CP/M 3.0 includes a transient utility command called HELP that displays a summary of the format and use for the most common CP/M commands. To access HELP, simply enter the command:

A>HELP {return}

You can press the {help} key instead of typing the word HELP and pressing the {return} key.

The list of available topics is then displayed, like this:

Topics available:

   COMMANDS  CNTRLCHARS  DATE     DEVICE    DIR
   DUMP      ED          ERASE    FILESPEC  GENCOM  GET
   HELP      HEXCOM      INITDIR  LIB       LINK    MAC
   PATCH     PIP (COPY)  PUT      RENAME    RMAC    SAVE
   SET       SETDEF      SHOW     SID       SUBMIT  TYPE
   USER      XREF

Suppose you type:

HELP>PIP {return}

CP/M then displays the following information:

PIP (COPY)

Syntax:

DESTINATION SOURCE


PIP d: Gn filespec [Gn] =filespec [o],... d: [o]


Explanation:

The file copy program PIP copies files, combines files, and transfers 
files between disks, printers, consoles, or other devices attatched
to your computer. The first filespec is the destination. The second
filespec is the source. Use two or more source filespecs separated
by commas to combine two or more source files into one file. [o] is
any combination of available options. The [Gn] option in the
destination filespec tells PIP to copy your file to that user number.

PIP with no command tail displays an * prompt and awaits your series
of commands, entered and processed one line at a time. The source or
destination can be any CP/M 3.0 logical device.

The HELP facility provides information like this on all CP/M 3.0 built-in and transient utility commands. If you want information on a specific area, you can type HELP subject after the system prompt, where the subject is a command tail describing the subject you are interested in. For example:

A>HELP PIP
A>HELP DIRSYS

You can refer to HELP any time you need information on a specific command. Or you can just browse through HELP to broaden your knowledge of CP/M 3.0.

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